This is an expansion of the three case studies (Malawi, South Africa, Cuba) prepared by the SI for DfID in 2016 (see project: Mitigating vulnerabilities in the energy-food-water nexus in developing countries). Kenya, a lower-middle-income ‘frontier economy’, represents an interesting and useful case study of the energy-food-water nexus that complements the existing three cases. The country has been a leader in Africa in the development of renewable energy, particularly geothermal power and roof-top solar PV. However, following discoveries of oil resources in recent years, Kenya is poised to begin oil production in 2017. This could have a major impact on the development trajectory the country follows in the coming decades.